# Loss functions¶

A loss function measures the difference between predicted outputs and the according label. We can then run back propogation to compute the gradients. Let’s first import the modules, where the mxnet.gluon.loss module is imported as gloss to avoid the commonly used name loss.

[1]:

from IPython import display
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt
from mxnet.gluon import nn, loss as gloss


## Basic Usages¶

Now let’s create an instance of the $$\ell_2$$ loss.

[2]:

loss = gloss.L2Loss()


and then feed two inputs to compute the elemental-wise loss values.

[3]:

x = nd.ones((2,))
y = nd.ones((2,)) * 2
loss(x, y)

[3]:


[0.5 0.5]
<NDArray 2 @cpu(0)>


These values should be equal to the math definition: $$0.5\|x-y\|^2$$.

[4]:

.5 * (x - y)**2

[4]:


[0.5 0.5]
<NDArray 2 @cpu(0)>


In a mini-batch, some examples may be more important than others. We can apply weights to individual examples during the forward function (the default weight value is 1).

[5]:

loss(x, y, nd.array([1, 2]))

[5]:


[0.5 1. ]
<NDArray 2 @cpu(0)>


Next we show how to use a loss function to compute gradients.

[6]:

X = nd.random.uniform(shape=(2, 4))
net = nn.Dense(1)
net.initialize()
l =  loss(net(X), y)
l

[6]:


[1.9893507 1.9883885]
<NDArray 2 @cpu(0)>


Since the both network forward and loss are recorded, we can compute the gradients w.r.t. the loss function.

[7]:

l.backward()

[7]:


[[-2.2967231 -2.8934312 -2.5131638 -3.3736074]]
<NDArray 1x4 @cpu(0)>


## Visualize Loss Functions¶

Let’s first visualize several regression losses. We visualize the loss values versus the predicted values with label values fixed to be 0.

[8]:

def plot(x, y):
display.set_matplotlib_formats('svg')
plt.plot(x.asnumpy(), y.asnumpy())
plt.xlabel('x')
plt.ylabel('loss')
plt.show()

def show_regression_loss(loss):
x = nd.arange(-5, 5, .1)
y = loss(x, nd.zeros_like(x))
plot(x, y)

[9]:

show_regression_loss(gloss.L1Loss())

[10]:

show_regression_loss(gloss.L2Loss())


Then plot the classification losses with label values fixed to be 1.

[11]:

def show_classification_loss(loss):
x = nd.arange(-5, 5, .1)
y = loss(x, nd.ones_like(x))
plot(x, y)

show_classification_loss(gloss.LogisticLoss())

[12]:

show_classification_loss(gloss.HingeLoss() )


## Cross Entropy Loss with Softmax¶

In classification, we often apply the softmax operator to the predicted outputs to obtain prediction probabilities, and then apply the cross entropy loss against the true labels. Running these two steps one-by-one, however, may need to numerical instabilities. The loss module provides a single operators with softmax and cross entropy fused to avoid such problem.

[13]:

loss = gloss.SoftmaxCrossEntropyLoss()
x = nd.array([[1, 10], [8, 2]])
y = nd.array([0, 1])
loss(x, y)

[13]:


[9.000123  6.0024757]
<NDArray 2 @cpu(0)>


For binary classification, we can use SigmoidBinaryCrossEntropyLoss.